Allergy is a disorder of the immune system often also referred to as atopy.
An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to alleviate mood disorders, such as major depression and dysthymia.
Arthritis is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth
Cardio & Blood 
Risk factors for heart disease: infections
A fat-like substance called a lipid. It is used to build cell membranes, hormones and bile acids
The inability of the body to produce, or the inability to metabolize, the human hormone insulin; Diabetes insipidus, usually a disorder of the ...
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures
The digestive tract is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food...
General Health 
The infant, child or young person?s current health condition
Herbal tea, herbal medicine
Hormones - Proteins produced by organs of the body that trigger activity in other locations.
Men's Health 
For men on fitness, health, sex, caree
Pain relief 
Pain management is the medical discipline concerned with the relief of pain.
Skin care 
The skin is the outer covering of the body
Weight Loss 
Loss of body weight by dieting or due to various easting disorders or medical conditions.
Women's Health 
Find information on women's health issues, and lifestyle at the Women's Health
Fresh material Male fertility tests: fructose, anti-sperm antibody and post-coital tests
Impotence: some preventable causes
Male fertility: why are so many sperm needed?
Factors that affect your fertility: recreational drugs
The most popular materials [37706 view]
Phen375 rebate chaoticsoul wp design by bryan veloso rate this file → More
Breast lumps: dysplasia, fibroadenosis → More
How do the iris-signs originate? → More
Menstrual cycle: proliferative or follicular phase → More
Anxiety in the mind: nervous tension → More
Awaiting moderation 60496 Article
Treatments of breast cancer: lumpectomy TREATMENTS OF BREAST CANCER: LUMPECTOMY
There have always been conflicting views amongst members of the medical profession about how to treat breast cancer. Some specialists believe that radical treatment is best, others that a combination of less surgically aggressive treatments is as effective, and others that treatment has no effect on the course of the disease in some forms of cancer. Some specialists still always offer mastectomy to women with certain types of breast cancer; others do so as a last resort. To try to deal with this problem, nationwide trials were set up in the UK some years ago into which women with breast cancer were entered, with their informed consent. Many surgeons throughout the UK - and many in other countries - are still taking part in these trials and may no longer choose a treatment regime for their breast cancer patients. Instead, each surgeon follows a predetermined plan which provides a particular type of treatment for a particular type of cancer. Once enough information has been gathered from these trials, better treatment decisions may be able to be made in the future.
There are several different operations for the surgical treatment of breast cancer. The operation undertaken will depend on the stage at which the tumour is first detected and on which parts of the body are involved.
As well as removing the tumour, the lymph nodes in the armpit may also have to be removed to stage the disease. The more nodes that are affected by malignancy, the worse the prognosis.
Women can, of course, choose to have no treatment, although without it the tumour may eventually erupt through the skin, forming ulcers on the breast and metastatic spread.
This operation involves the removal of the lump itself rather than of the entire breast. For single tumours up to 2 cm (about 3/4 inch) in diameter, lumpectomy with or without the removal of the auxiliary lymph nodes and radiotherapy may be the treatment of choice.
Following this type of operation, some 1 to 2 per cent of tumours may recur in the parts of the breast or auxiliary nodes which remain. Long-term follow-up is therefore necessary.
The cosmetic appearance following lumpectomy is usually good, as there is often only a small scar. If the auxiliary lymph nodes have been completely removed, swelling of the arm and hand (known as lymphoedema) may result as the lymph is no longer able to drain away. For this reason, radiotherapy must be avoided when there has been radical removal of the auxiliary lymph nodes.
|Keywords for this page: Treatments of breast cancer: lumpectomy|