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Awaiting moderation 60458 Article
The iris and the constitution THE IRIS AND THE CONSTITUTION
I, myself, agree with the views of Pastor Baumhauer of Vienna on this subject. Since I am in accord with him, I quote here from his statements literally:
The increased research of hereditary factors will enable Iriscopy, as well as the constitution of an individual, to be determined in the widest sense. By constitution, one understands the total of inherited and acquired factors, which determine the actual quality of the blood and lymph, and which in turn result in the state of the remaining bodily organs and tissues. In short: the entire constitutional condition of a man in his ability to withstand the disease producing influences. A constitution reflects the genotype insofar as it is qualified by hereditary factors. Beyond that, it may be modified within certain limits by environmental influences occurring during the course of life (domestic circumstances, nutrition, social factors).
However, it must be stipulated that it is not disease as such but only the dispositions which are transmitted, and that, moreover, from the very first moment of intra-uterine life an effective influence is required to precipitate the actual disease. The total of these tendencies and influences provides the complete picture of the constitution of man (phenotype).
The most valuable aspect of Iriscopy lies in the ability to make a rapid estimation of the human constitutional disposition by an examination of the colour and structure of the iris. The colour of eyes, hair and skin is collectively referred to as the complexion, and these three generally remain in close relation to each other. Since this complexion derives from the blood and other body fluids, certain inferences may be drawn regarding the composition of the blood as well as the morphological structure of the whole organism. The constitution is thus comprehended in terms of chemical and biological functions. Let us take the ground colour of the iris as the principal criterion for the classification of constitution. We thus obtain three main groups:
i. Blue iris—blond hair, fair skin
ii. Grey iris—mixed and compound forms
iii. Brown iris—dark hair, dark skin
It is obviously possible to draw finer differences, such as the lighter and darker shades within all three colourings, but these will here be disregarded. Let us now attempt, in a general way, to give the characteristics of the three different constitutions.
Blue iris: The blue iris is the expression of thinner blood. We have here nothing less than the lymphatic constitution known of old. Von Paltauf has written:
Enlargement of tonsils, lymph nodes, extended lymph node complex of the follicles at the base of the tongue, enlargement of the spleen and the presence of an abnormally large thymus gland at a time when this should have quite disappeared.
Their origin lies in the lymphatic constitution of childhood, during which the lymphatic system and the lymph are already in a condition of hyperfunction. Arising from a continuance of this lymphatic constitution throughout childhood, certain lymphatic and torpid conditions develop during growth and puberty, of which the main examples are: adenoidal growths, nasal polypi, enlarged tonsils, swollen lymphatic cervical glands, swelling of the thyroid gland, and transitional states developing Basedows syndrome and exophthalmic goitre. These are the typical characteristics of this iris colour.
This type has a particularly distinct predisposition with regard to the respiratory system: asthenic pulmonary states, pleuritic and bronchitic conditions, haemoptysis and tuberculosis, here produce most victims. There is also a greater tendency to reabsorption of uric acid with greater accumulation in blood and body fluids, giving rise to rheumatic and neuralgic disturbances. Arteriosclerosis and corneal opacity is more frequent with this type. Heart and kidneys are found to be more easily susceptible.
To summarise: the following are the typical characteristics—blue iris,
Grey Iris: The grey iris, which is due to the reinforcement of the connective tissue fibres of the vascular layer, has a constitutional similarity with the blue iris, but with a special tendency to rheumatic-catarrhal affections involving septic skin conditions such as acne, furunculosis, obstinate skin eruptions; and as a secondary consequence of suppressed perspiration strong catarrhal secretions from all the mucous membranes.
As a result of insufficiency of the renal secretions with noticeably disturbed conditions of quality and quantity of the urine, there arise many unrecognised and difficult conditions of disease of obscure origin.
Summarising: The grey iris is the sign of a rheumatic-catarrhal constitution.
Brown Iris: The brown iris results from a larger concentration of pigment cells, and suggests above all a greater concentration of blood and body fluids.
An admixture of a greater or smaller quantity of bile pigment frequently lends the eye a greenish shimmering lustre. Because of the concentration of blood, and arising from various environmental and domestic influences, the deficient digestion of this type is a characteristic feature with a special predisposition to diseases of the digestive system, of the gastro-intestinal canal along with the associated organs: gastric atony, nervous dyspepsia, constipation, with their secondary states of flatulence, stomach pains, and gastric and duodenal ulcers. These unfavourable tendencies more frequently appear in the female sex with the following consequents—cephalalgia (headaches), cholelithiasis, appendicitis, abdominal plethora (abdominal stasis—particularly of the portal system) and signs of congestion, as well as neurasthenia (sensitive nervous weakness) and hysteria (also psychoneurosis).
The functional tendencies consist of a morbid sensitivity of the liver, so that slight disturbances of bile secretion arise from dietetic errors, such as jaundice, hepatic eclamapsia, and inflammation of the gallbladder. Concentrated and cholesterin-rich blood may also aggravate any tendency to new growths.
To summarise: Brown iris—gastric-bilious-carcinomatous constitution.
Thus, by observing the basic iris colour, one may determine in every human being the relatively weak aspect of his organism which is in the slightest degree susceptible to
disease-producing influences, and which therefore merits particular consideration from the outset.
It by no means always requires a complicated and exhaustive clinical examination, but merely Iriscopy in conjunction with the history, sex, age and occupation, in order to establish the constitution with its particular predispositions, and thereby to determine quite easily in what respects it has a prophylactic significance.
Apart from the colour of the irisis, there is also the actual structure, with its special indications of a constitutional deterioration in the resistance of the total organism, and a decrease in general vitality. Of particular significance is the integrity of the anterior (superficial) layer of the iris as revealed by the greater or lesser degree of delicacy and strength, and through which it is possible to see the underlying supportive connective tissues and vascular layer. This integrity is an indication of the resistance factor in the total organism.
Disregarding the colour of the iris, and assessing only the integrity of the anterior superficial layer we have the following:
1. Ideal Iris: a fine textured iris with an unbroken surface, without crypts or contraction rings (nerve rings).
2. First-grade Iris: an iris texture with little trophic change affecting the anterior layer, although small crypts are evident, especially in the area of the iris-wreath. People with such an iris are in general extremely resistant of constitution, and mostly enjoy untroubled health.
3. Normal Iris: partial atrophic change of the anterior layer, revealing larger portions of the deeper vascular layer, a greater prominence of the iris-wreath, and disproportionate distribution of pigment.
4. Degenerative Iris: almost complete atrophy of the anterior layer, honeycomb-like network of the connective tissues of the vascular sheath, a star-shaped distortion of the iris-wreath, and considerable infiltration of the chromatophors in the deeper layers of the stroma, indicating a deep degeneration of the vital state, and at the same time suggesting the detrimental effects upon the organism of hereditary influences.
The difficult question of the connection of the constitution with a definite mento-emotional habitus can merely be referred to here. The influence of the soma upon the psyche and the reverse is firmly established, as well as the supremacy of the mind over everything material. A satisfactory explanation for it is given only by the theory of psychophysical correlation in human nature, in which body and soul, although essentially different from one another, are yet naturally co-ordinated in combinations which constitute human substance.
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